We know that burning aviation fuel advances global warming by producing GHG (Green House Gas), BUT, it also delivers what is called “global dimming” because the ice crystals which allow us to see jet contrails also reflect sun radiation back into space. Complexity yields uncertainty.
The global weather system is complex and how it will change with respect to the global warming that we all (except, apparently, Mr Trump) know is happening is difficult to predict in detail and fast enough. One of the problems with that is that by the time we are sure of something, it may be too late to do much about it. The evidence so far does not suggest that climate change causes hurricanes. However, it’s becoming more and more clear that a warming climate leads to more devastating hurricanes.
As far as UK farming is concerned, the implication is that winds generally will get stronger and storm winds will do more damage to crops. Wind breaks and stronger cereal straw are still likely to be part of the defence strategy. Wind turbines may be a better investment, too.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd, 3 October 18
The soil is much as the cow’s rumen. It is not the cow that digests the food, it is the rumen micro-organisms. then the micro-organisms feed the cow.
Think of the soil much as a cow’s rumen. Click on the blue band above here on “articles” and go to no 16 and click.
or try https://landresearch.files.wordpress.com/2018/09/the-soil-rumen-and-ion-exchange1.pdf
This years drought in the UK was a warning shot. The global starvation issue affects us all – people with full bellies are less likely to go to war or emigrate.
New evidence in The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2018 confirms a rise in world hunger: the number of people who suffer from hunger has been growing over the past three years, returning to levels from almost a decade ago.
Multiple forms of malnutrition are evident in many countries: adult obesity is growing even as forms of under-nutrition persist.
The reports says that climate variability and extremes are key drivers behind this rise, together with conflict and economic downturns, and are threatening to erode and reverse gains made in ending hunger and malnutrition.
The current need to secure home-produced food is as strong now as it was in the 1939 to 45 war; the threat is different but just as potentially lethal, We neglect UK food production now at the cost to our children.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd 11 September 18
Zero till with a Moore Unidrill; note the independent discs and seed coulters (right) and press wheels on the rear (left) giving even depth of placement and good seed-soil contact. (Photo courtesy Agri-Linc.)
Direct drilling comes in two guises; drilling after a little cultivation (“min till” really), and what in the USA would be called “zero till”. Each has its own consequence in terms of weed control. Maybe I learned, years ago, most from a farms manager called Richard Noyce, he always had clean bottoms to his crops simply because, after harvest, he cultivated the surface several times to get weeds seeds to germinate, before putting the next crop in. The alternative of one pass to put the crop in does imply more work to do with selective herbicide – but that is probably going to happen anyway, so it is not an extra cost. Generally, in the hands of a sensitive husbandry man, zero till costs less and gives higher yields.
Good husbandry and using the right machinery is aiming at even depth of placement, good seed-soil contact, giving even emergence.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd, 20 August ‘18
In direst drilling, getting even depth of placement and good seed-soil contact is important.
Some will be old enough to remember the Bettinson 3D drill. Direct drilling went out of fashion in the early 1990’s but it is back and what a year in 2018 to start direct drilling! Drought is a killer in the seedbed and cultivations drive off water. So, this year will take a bit of managing and some luck, too. Harrow to get the weed seeds to chit. Shower of rain, please. Green up. Spay off with glyphosate. Direct drill. Showers of rain please. Roll if useful. Would that it were as easy as that. However, it is still much easier than trying to get a wider range of conventional cultivations through. Direct drilling is lower cost, faster and therefore there is a timeliness gain, conserves soil moisture, over-all does give a little better yields, certainly at lower cost.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd, August 18
Can we organic matter to make top soil reservoirs for next year?
At this time of introduction of a hosepipe ban in the NW of England, maybe a moment (if we get a wet day during harvest) to think about not running short of water in our soils next year. So, a check list for before serous rain starts.
- Know where water is coming from. Of course, it is the rain. Is it? Is wat3r coming from other land onto yours? Can it be diverted or managed better? What about ground water.
- What route does the water take off your land? Do you want it to leave?
- Is lack of maintenance of ditches and drainage a significant issue?
- What speed is the water when it leaves your land? Will it case flooding lower down?
- Can you harvest the water?
- Does water leaving your land carry nutrients at a loss?
- What is the organic matter level in each of your fields? Will that level help manage water at the right time for cultivations, crop growth and harvest?
- How can you change the organic matter of your soils?
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd 17 July 18
I have to admit that while my original objections (corruption at the centre and the weight of prescriptive regulations) were valid and still stand, my hope was that everyone would get pulled up to think about it and find another solution. There was then, and is so now, as far as I can see, a choice between two options. Firstly, Brexit. Everyone here is ashamed of the UK government’s shambolic infighting. Similarly at fault is the centre of the EU itself. This idea of “make it difficult for the UK because we don’t want anyone else to leave” seriously implies that Brussels realises that there is something wrong and instead of getting everyone (ALL EU Members) round a table and see if a better way forward can be found, they sit and complain that it is all the UK’s fault.As far as I can see, there is little hope of Brussels exercising some common sense, taking the initiative and inviting the UK to discuss with all the Members how we can all produce a better EU framework. If we, all the EU, do not do that, the entire world order will be different with a less safe global environment and weakened western-economies. this is a really sad situation.
Bill Butteworth, Land Research, 13 July 18
I share your sadness.