Carbon Capture without giving us the Oxygen back would be a disaster.
It is in the nature of humans to look for the latest gismo, preferably with bells and whistles and girls dancing. Therefore the perceived “holy grail” of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is to take the flue gases from burning oil, coal and lignite, and put it down a deep hole and leave it there. So far, nobody has done this on a commercial scale successfully. If people don’t like shale gas exploration and the pressures used in “fracking”, CCS might be worse with the pressures involved and potential for catastrophic leakage. There is also a problem in that this route locks up the Oxygen and some living creatures might find that a bit difficult.
So, what answer is under our noses? It is called the green leaf. Green growth takes Carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and gives us the Oxygen back. Only farmers and foresters can do this. So, support them and stop building on land that will support green leaves. The alternative, according to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) is likely to be catastrophic.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd, 15 December ‘18
“Substantial health gains can be achieved from taking action to prevent climate change, independent of any future reductions in damages due to climate change. Some countries, such as China and India, could justify stringent mitigation efforts just by including health co-benefits in the analysis. Our results also suggest that the statement in the Paris Agreement to pursue efforts to limit temperature increase to 1·5°C could make economic sense in some scenarios and countries if health co-benefits are taken into account.”
What this means is that we will all be healthier and spend less on health if we sort out global warming – starting right now.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd 9th December 18
This building land was, a few months before this picture was taken, productive farmland. Instead, we will import a bit more food and have a bit more national debt which our kids will probably fail to pay off.
Compact cities produce fewer emissions than urban sprawl because they tend to offer better access to public transit and cycling and walking paths, have greater energy efficiency, have lower environmental costs for infrastructure, and allow for more green spaces. It is more expensive to construct and operate infrastructure that services sprawling communities than it is to serve compact ones (i.e. built upwards). According to the World Recourse Institute, one estimate suggests that a more compact approach to urban growth could reduce global infrastructure capital requirements by more than $3 trillion between 2015 and 2030. Building upwards can be socially difficult and unsafe but, with good design, it can also be socially beneficial and safer than urban sprawl/
Also, productive farm land is shrinking. Common sense inescapably says stop building on farm land, build upwards and limit population growth.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd, 22 November 18
If the UK Environment Agency is serious about the environment, then it needs to ensure nearly every UK farm has a compost opertion, not on concrete.
The new blockbuster climate report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations makes two things startlingly clear. First, we must massively accelerate the decarbonisation of the global economy. This will require rapid system-wide transformations in the way we build our cities, generate energy, grow food and manufacture goods. And second, we must capture carbon right out of the air.
What composting of urban wastes does is to reduce and eliminate the use of mineral fertilisers. (One tonne of N made in a modern USA factory typically consumes 21,000 kWh of electricity – which was probably generated using an engine burning fossilised fuel, which produced Carbon dioxide.) Farming also grows crops with green leaves – which take Carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. These two activities, composting urban wastes and growing green leaves, lock up organic Carbon and reduce the release of the GHG (Green House Gas) Carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. What’s more, crops grown on high Carbon soils need less irrigation, less pesticide sprays, lodge less and yield more. Only farming can do this.
Yes, the technology is understood to recycle more to land – safely.
In a paper cited by the World Resources Institute, a large number of prominent scientists estimate that by managing the world’s land more sustainably, such as by protecting forests and investing in reforestation, we could achieve up to 37 percent of emissions reductions necessary to limit the global rise in temperature to 2 degrees Celsius by 2030. We could go even further by recycling urban wastes to that land through composting.
Bill Butterworth, Land Research Ltd 20 October ‘18
We can expect stronger storms and, therfefore, increased lodging risk.
According to the World Resource Institute, Scientists suspect that human-caused warming can help explain why the latitude of where tropical cyclones reach their peak intensity has moved 53 and 62 kilometers poleward per decade in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively, away from the tropics. While there has yet to be any signal of migration of storm intensity in the Atlantic, this migration is occurring in other ocean basins, especially the Pacific and South Indian Oceans. Regions that are further away from the equator could see an increased risk of intense storms. On the other hand, those communities closer to the equator, which rely upon tropical cyclone rainfall as freshwater, could see threats to their water supplies.
As the previous post here showed, Organic N, then, is different. It just sits there in the store, alive with micro-organisms and giving some (but very low losses) to the soil atmosphere and groundwater. However, it is different in a staggeringly complex and important way. When conditions favour both plant and fungi, the mycorrhizae feed at one end of their hyphae on the organic matter and the other end of each hypha either crosses the root hair wall into the plant body, or wraps round the root hair (much like the placenta of a mammal). This is a closed conduit!Not only is this why natural ecosystems do not leak nutrients and pollute the ground water, they also feed the plant with complex molecules, already some way down the route for forming cellulose and amino acids – so accelerating growth. Even more staggering, these mycorrhizae can suck nutrients out of some plants (weeds?) and transfer then to others (crops?).
There is enough urban waste in the world to supply enough nutrients to feed the world – without manufacturing fertilisers. (But we do actually need both.)
See the next blog in this series for more on profitable, eco-mimic fertiliser mechanisms and also “Survival” by bill Butterworth, published on Amazon.